1565 – Chinese sailors arrive in the Americas aboard Spanish ships. A number of Chinese and Filipino crewmen jump ship to escape slave labor aboard the Manila Galleons, which transport cargoes of Chinese luxury goods to Acapulco, Mexico.
1600s – A number of Chinese former sailors establish themselves as small-store owners in present-day Mexico and some begin moving north towards modern-day Louisiana. Chinese shopkeepers are well-established in Los Angeles by the time the first Anglo settlers arrive.
1790 – The Naturalization Act states that only “free white persons” can become US citizens.
1833 – The British Parliament enacts the British Slavery Abolition Act but continues to allow exceptions to the rule until the 20th century. Provisions are made slavery in the form of contracting the servitude of existing slaves, often referred to as “indentured laborers” or “coolies” — a derogatory term used for unskilled Asian workers.
1834 – The Chinese Lady (Julia Foochee Ching-Chang King, later given the moniker Afong Moy by her circus agents), the first recorded Chinese woman to come to America, arrives in New York. She is marketed as a cultural and curiosity exhibit and thronging crowds pay to see her and her tiny feet, deformed by the Chinese practice of foot binding.
1840s – 1870s – Europeans buy, trick or capture 750,000 “coolies” — Asian slaves and/or indentured labor — trading them in the port cities of Macao, Hong Kong and Amoy — all of which are under British control. Most are shipped off to replace African labor in South America and the Caribbean. Up to 45% typically die at sea. Many end up in Hawaii or mainland America.
1847 – The British cut off funding to warehouses along the Pearl River, China and more than 100,000 laborers lose their jobs. Unable to support their families, some of them decide to leave to seek their fortunes in America. Most unwittingly sign life-time (slavery) contracts in order to emigrate.
1848 – The first recorded Chinese from Canton arrive in San Francisco (there may well have been many others preceding, arriving here and in other parts of the US). A few months later, a Chinese resident writes home to his relatives in Canton, China, to share the news that gold has been discovered in Sutter’s Mill, California, near the Sacramento River.
1849 – Hundreds of Chinese, virtually all of them male, arrive in California. At least 300 gather nightly at a Chinese restaurant in Jackson Street, San Francisco, which is still a frontier town.
1850 – About 450 Chinese arrive in California.
1851 – Almost 3,000 new Chinese immigrants arrive in San Francisco. DuPont Street springs up as the center of a new China town in San Francisco. Chinese eating houses become popular and are patronized by people of all races. Wah Lee opens the first laundromat in San Francisco, localizing the laundry process and undercutting an established business whereby dirty laundry is sent to China for cleaning and returned 6 to 9 months later.
1852 – More than 20,000 Chinese arrive in San Francisco. Two Chinese miners discover a giant 240 lb. nugget of gold arousing bitter jealousy among white miners. The Californian Committee on Mines and Mining declares the presence of the Chinese “a great moral and social evil—a disgusting scab upon the fair face of society—a putrefying sore upon the body politic—in short, a nuisance.”
There are 27,000 Chinese in California. Governor John Bigler urges the creation of special taxes on the “coolies” to stop the “tide of Asiatic immigration.” A special foreign miner’s tax aimed at the Chinese was passed by the California legislature that was aimed at foreign miners who were not U.S. citizens. Given that the Chinese were ineligible for citizenship at that time and constituted the largest percentage of the non-white population, the taxes were primarily aimed at them and tax revenue was therefore generated almost exclusively by the Chinese. This tax required a payment of three dollars each month at a time when Chinese miners were making approximately six dollars a month. Tax collectors could legally take and sell the property of those miners who refused or could not pay the tax. Fake tax collectors made money by taking advantage of people who could not speak English well, and some tax collectors, both false and real, stabbed or shot miners who could not or would not pay the tax. During the 1860s, many Chinese were expelled from the mine fields and forced to find other jobs. The Foreign Miner’s Tax existed till 1870.
1854 – The California Supreme Court, in Hall vs. People, ruled that Chinese people testimony against whites was inadmissible in the Court of Law. The ruling effectively made white violence against Chinese Americans unprosecutable, arguably leading to more intense white-on-Chinese race riots, such as the 1877 San Francisco Riot. The Chinese living in California were with this decision left practically in a legal vacuum, because they had now no possibility to assert their rightful legal entitlements or claims – possibly in cases of theft or breaches of agreement – in court. The ruling remained in force until 1873.
1858 – In April 25, 1858, 400 Chinese came to San Francisco, they didn’t know they would be allowed to work the mines only when whites miners had moved on.
1860 – An estimated 6000 Chinese were hired in British Columbia, Canada as miners. This was considered a highly dangerous job with very low pay and no benefits.
1861 – A small number of Chinese fought during the American Civil War. Of the approximately 200 Chinese people in the eastern United States at the time, fifty-eight are known to have fought in the Civil War, many of them in the Navy. Most fought for the Union but a small number are also known to have fought for the Confederacy.
1862 – Gold discovered in Cariboo’s William Creek, British Columbia.
1862 – California passes Anti-Coolie Act — in reality a legalized “police tax” protection racket. Work permits were charged at $2.50 a month (a significant sum at the time) for workers over the age of 18 of the “Mongolian Race.”
1862 – 1965 – More than a dozen states in United States of America, pass laws banning Asians from owning and inheriting property.
1863 – 1869 – Upon the liberation of slaves and no pioneers in the west to perform high risk labor intensive work, the only jobs building the railroad were conducted in below freezing temperatures of the high Sierra and boiling heat of the Mojave Desert. Even though the Chinese workers performed virtually all of the hardest, dirtiest, and most dangerous jobs, they were only paid 60% of what European immigrant workers got paid. (close to a dollar a day and six days a week with 12 hours a day.) These Chinese workers were forced to climb the stiff cliffs of Yosemite 14,000 Chinese were hired to build the cross Atlantic railroad, many sources claim that up to 1,000 Chinese died during the project as a result of avalanches and explosive accidents as they carved their way through the Sierra Mountains,(while records were kept for animals lost, records of Chinese casualties were never kept) in the process setting records for laying track and finishing the project seven years ahead of the government’s deadline. About one in ten Chinese workers have died building the railroads — 1,756 miles of track have been laid at the cost of 1.7 Chinese deaths per mile — leaving about 12,000 still employed at this point. On May 10, 1869, when the East and West railroads were finally connected in Promontary Point, Utah, all Chinese railroad workers employment was terminated. They were further forced to stay away from the photo shoot during the opening ceremonies, denied access to board the railroad trains they just finished, and forced to walk back to San Francisco some thousands of miles away.
May 21, 1866 – Traveling without armed escorts normally afforded whites, 50 Chinese on their way to Idaho City, Idaho are killed by Native Americans.
June 2, 1866 – The Humboldt Register reports: “A drove of Chinese on their way to Montana, was attacked, just over the line, in the Queen’s river country, and 40 are reported killed.”
1868 – Collis P. Huntington, owner of Central Pacific Railroad, refuses to arm Chinese workers so they can defend themselves from attacks by Native Americans: “A Winchester is worth $12, a Chinese none.”
1869 – Newly arrived Chinese immigrant workers are packed into train cars with barely any standing room, sent on their way to railroad construction sites. Many of them die from suffocation en route.
1870 – Realizing that their employers have no intentions of paying salaries owed to them, former Chinese railroad workers in Texas launch a class-action suit.
1870 – More than 12,000 former Chinese railroad workers settle in the California Delta to help with levee construction, draining swamps by using sluice and pump technology taken from Asia, farming, cannery work, and other menial chores which Caucasians will not do. Almost every river town in the California Delta features a Chinatown.
June 30, 1870 – The bones of 1,200 Chinese workers (20,000 lbs.’ worth) who died building the railroads are shipped to China for burial.
1871 – On Oct 24, in what becomes known as the Chinese Massacre of 1871, a brutal race riot breaks out in the Los Angeles. One out of ten people in the city participate. Every Chinese-occupied building is ransacked and almost every Chinese resident is attacked or robbed. The county coroner confirms 19 Chinese deaths at the hands of the mob (some estimates put the number of deaths at 23).
1871 – Chinese employed in Nanaimo coalfields, British Columbia joins Conferation, increase in anti-Chinese sentiment.
1871 – The Queue Ordinance of San Francisco is enacted specifically to target the Chinese custom of wearing queues. It requires that all prisoners in San Francisco jails to have their hair cut to no more than one inch long. Chinese throughout the city are summarily arrested on miscellaneous trumped-up charges and their hair is cut off.
1871 – San Francisco passes the Cubic Air Ordinance requiring at least 500 cubic feet air space per inhabitant, designed specifically to target arrangements in Chinese living quarters.
1872 – The California Civil Procedure Code drops the law barring the Chinese from giving testimony in court.
1872 – Tuscadora is home to the largest Chinese community in Nevada’s hitherto history. About 4,000 former railroad workers settle there and work as miners.
1872 – All ethnic Chinese are barred from owning real estate or business licenses in California.
1873 – San Francisco passes a Laundry Ordinance penalizing Chinese laundrymen for not using horses or horse-drawn delivery vehicles — as a rule they deliver laundry on foot carrying them in baskets balanced at the end of poles.
1875 – British Columbia, Canada passed a law that all Chinese are prohibited from working in a professional job such as, lawyer, doctor, accountant, architect, etc. Chinese were restricted to professions in laundry, grocery, restaurant, and any other hard labor intensive work that non-Asian didn’t want to do.
1875 – The Page Law bars entry of Chinese, Japanese, and “Mongolian” prostitutes, felons, as well as contract laborers — effectively applying to any and all Asians except for a handful of merchants and diplomats.
1876 – The Southern Pacific Railroad connecting San Francisco and Los Angeles is completed by Chinese laborers; work includes 1.25-mile San Fernando tunnel.
1876 – Chinese vegetable vendors are required to acquire special licenses.
1877 – Anti-Chinese riots break out in San Francisco. Several thousand people rally at City Hall to protest the drastic wage cuts by railroad companies. A crowd of 500 people gather to burn down Chinatown, but do not succeed in destroying all of it when they are stopped by a volunteer force consisting of 30 mounted patrol officers and volunteers.
1878 – A circuit court in California rules in In re Ah Yup that Chinese are not eligible for naturalization because they are of the Mongolian race and not Caucasian.
1878 – The California Constitutional Convention calls for restriction of citizenship to both natives or foreigners of Mongolian blood [sic], and the prohibition of corporations from employing Chinese laborers.
1878 – Chinese vegetable vendors go on strike when Los Angeles passes a new ordinance aimed at the Chinese.
1879 – Congress passes the Fifteen Passenger Bill limiting ships crossing the Pacific to carrying a maximum of 15 Chinese passengers. President Rutherford D. Hayes vetoes the bill, because it contradicts the terms of the Burlingame Treaty of 1868.
1879 – California adopts a new constitution forbidding the use of all Chinese labor.
1880s – Chinese workers comprise more than half of the labor force in the Los Angeles area, serving as farm workers and ranch hands. The Chinese also become the principal vegetable vendors of Los Angeles, controlling 90% of the industry.
1880s – The Northern Pacific has about 15,000 Chinese workers on their payroll.
1880 – The Chinese government agrees to limit emigration of its citizens to America in exchange for the better protection of those already there.
1880 – San Francisco passes an ordinance targeting Chinese laundries in wooden buildings. At this time, about 95% of the city’s 320 laundries are operated in wooden buildings and approximately two-thirds are owned by Chinese persons. (1886: In Yick Wo v. Hopkins, the US Supreme Court rules that a San Francisco ordinance passed in 1880 is race-neutral on its face, but is administered in a prejudicial manner and infringes on the Fourteenth Amendment.
This is overturned when the application of the law is proved discriminatory.)
1881 – Canada begin to use the Chinese laborer to build the daunting B.C. section of Canadian Pacific Railway; 700 of them died in the process. The 17,000 Chinese who helped build the railway were pay half as much as white workers. This wage differential was the norm for Chinese in Canada well into the 1930s.
1882 – The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed by U.S. Congress. It excluded all rights of Chinese living in United States. The Act was repealed in 1943, when China agreed to became America’s ally after a “surprise attack” of Pearl Harbor in fighting the Japanese during the second World War. China bogged down millions of Japanese troops to prevent the invasion of Australia and Hawaii, and provided re-enforcements to fight with American in fierce fighting in the Pacific Islands, such as Iwo Jima, Midway, Guadacanal, Philippines, and Guam.
1882 – Peak of Chinese immigration (8,083) from San Francisco and Hong Kong to British Columbia, Canada.
1885 – The Rock Springs Massacre: In Wyoming, white immigrant miners riot against Chinese miners (who are paid less and historically recruited as strikebreakers), killing 28 Chinese miners, wounding 15, and destroying 75 of their homes. The US Secretary of State Thomas F. Bayard responds indifferently, indicating that the Chinese brought it upon themselves by being different and inassimilable.
1885 – Near Newcastle, Washington a mob of whites burn down the barracks of 36 Chinese coal miners.
1885 – Throughout the Puget Sound area, Chinese workers are driven out of communities and subject to violence in cities and towns such as Tacoma, Seattle, Newcastle and Issaquah (Squak).
1885 – U.S. Congress bans “contract labor”—a ban which in practice is used mainly against the employment of Chinese immigrants.
1885 – Franchise Act excludes Chinese in British Columbia, Canada.
1886 – British Columbia province inserts anti- Chinese clauses in all private bills, Chinese construct CPR extension to New Westminster.
1886 – In the Seattle Riot, a mob rounds up Chinese residents and immigrant workers. Virtually every Chinese resident forcibly removed from the city. As a diplomatic settlement, the US government pays the Chinese government for these offenses, but not the actual Chinese victims.
1886 – Parts of the Los Angeles Chinese quarter are burned by white arsonists.
1886 – The Los Angeles Trade & Labor Council and the Knights of Labor move to boycott Chinese goods and Chinese labor in Los Angeles.
1886 – Most of Chinatown in Vancouver, Canada was burned down by arsonists. Local Chinese suffered tremendous loss of property and personal injury.
1886 – The Canadian Parliament passed an ordinance or law to collect a “Head Tax” for any Chinese coming to Canada for a family reunion at $10 per person. In 1903, to create for more hardship to Chinese in Canada, the “head tax” was increased to $500 per person. This typically equaled an estimated two years of annual income for the average Canadian worker at that time.
1886 – 1947 – A total of 82,371 Canadian Chinese were charged a “head tax” until its repeal in 1947. The amount they paid totally equaled three times the amount United States paid for Alaska. It took some 17 years for these Chinese to pay back the money they borrowed.
1887 – Bandits rob and kill 34 Chinese miners in Hells Canyon, Oregon, at a place which comes to be named Chinese Massacre Cove. The perpetrators comprise members of leading families. With virtually no protection under the law for all ethnic Chinese, key eye-witness testimonies are inadmissible and the killers are never brought to justice. Local newspapers ignore the trial entirely.
1887 – Oregon governor Sylvester Pennoyer, a leading force in anti-Chinese agitation, demands the expulsion of Portland’s Chinese population.
1888 – After the anti-Chinese riots of 1885-1886, the Chinese government concludes that the American government is unable to protect Chinese living in America. Sino-American negotiations begin, and the Americans seize on the opportunity to pass the Scott Act, signed by President Cleveland, permanently banning the immigration or return of Chinese laborers to the US. The bill passes the House unanimously and is met by only slight resistance in the Senate. Mass demonstrations in California celebrate the new law. About 20,000 Chinese who had left the US temporarily for a visit to China are refused reentry. The Supreme Court upholds the Scott Act. The Chinese government refuses to recognize its legitimacy.
1889 – In Chae Chan Ping v. United States, the Supreme Court rules that all ethnic Chinese, which the government deems inassimilable, can be barred from entry into the US, superseding all prior treaties with China.
1890 – BT Rogers offered bonus and tax concessions for sugar refinery in Vancouver, provided he employ No Chinese.
1891 – Los Angeles Chinese market gardeners, working between Westminster and Huntington Beach are harassed and attacked by mobs.
1892 – The Chinese Exclusion Act is renewed by the Geary Act, leaving exclusion laws intact for another 10 years. All Chinese are required to have residence certificates carried with them on their person at all times in case of inspection by police.
1893 – In Fong Yue Ting v. United States, the Supreme Court declares that U.S. Congress has the right to legislate expulsion through executive orders.
1893 – The Geary act is amended to make it harder for Chinese businessmen to enter the US.
1894 – Immigration officers are granted sole jurisdiction over the rights of aliens to enter the country. The Chinese are targeted by corrupt custom officials for the extortion of bribes. Many Chinese, including those that are born in the US are detained on trying to enter or re-enter the US.
1895 – Franchise Act excludes Japanese in British Columbia.
1898 – Hawaiian Chinese are barred from entering the mainland of the US, even though they have been there for generations.
1898 – The precedent is set by a court for denying all American-born Chinese re-entry and citizenship due to their ethnicity. In United States v. Wong Kim Ark, the Gresham-Yang Treaty of 1894 is reversed. Wong, a Chinese born in San Francisco, who had previously been granted a re-entry permit in 1890, “upon the sole ground that he was a native-born citizen of the United States” finds himself detained at the Port of San Francisco by the Collector of Customs in 1895 when he returns from yet another visit to China. This time, he is denied entry on the grounds that “although born in the city and county of San Francisco, state of California, United States of America,” he is “not a citizen thereof” by virtue of his mother and father “being Chinese persons, and subjects of the emperor of China,” “and the said Wong Kim Ark being also a Chinese person.”
1900 – Hawaii is annexed into the US. All people of Chinese blood resident on the islands — including those who have been there for generations farming and building the infrastructure — are required to obtain and carry certificates of residence with them at all times.
1902 – The Geary Act, an extension of the Chinese Exclusion Act, is again renewed for 10 years — all Chinese are barred from entry and naturalization. Chinese residents are required to present themselves for registration to obtain resident certificates. A number of Chinese are deported.
1904 – The Geary Act is amended, extended for an indefinite term — all Chinese are barred from entry and naturalization for the foreseeable future in United States.
1904 – American writer Jack London was also responsible for giving Americans an unfavorable view of Korea. As a war correspondent covering the Russo-Japanese conflict in 1904, London voiced his opinions in dispatches that appeared on the front pages of newspapers across the country. In an article entitled “The Yellow Peril” (San Francisco Examiner, September 25, 1904; p. 44), London wrote that “the Korean is the perfect type of inefficiency—of utter worthlessness.
1904 – 1908 – First immigration wave of Asian Indians (almost all Sikhs).
1905 – The Asiatic Exclusion League is formed by 67 labor unions active in the US and Canada. The League’s stated aims are to spread anti-Asian and anti-Chinese propaganda and to influence legislation restricting Asian immigration. Specifically targeted are Japanese, Chinese and Koreans. The League is immediately successful in pressuring the San Francisco Board of Education to segregate Asian school children.
1906 – In California, Asian students were banned from attending public schools in white districts. Restaurants refused to serve Asian customers, and Asians were often forced to sit in segregated corners of movie theaters.
1907 – There was an anti-Asiatic riot in Vancouver’s Chinatown and Japantown in British Columbia, Canada. The Chinese and Japanese again suffered tremendous property losses and personal injury.
1907 – Bowser Amendment to Election Act, in British Columbia adds “Hindus” to the list of other Asian undesirables.
1907 – British Columbia legislature passes act preventing Asians from entering certain professions, and buy property in some parts of Vancouver.
1908 – Canada’s Federal government requires Asian Indian immigration to have $200 in their possession on arrival [European immigrants required to have only $20].
1910 – Angel Island is opened as a detention center. Chinese arrivals are interned in holding cells for months or years, waiting for indeterminate periods to enter the US, and unable to leave. Many families are broken up when only some members of their family are allowed entry and others, especially the women, are not. Some lose their minds and are thrown in solitary confinement. Many end up committing suicide while incarcerated.
1912 – A Chinese merchant in Vancouver, Canada’s Chinatown applied for City approval to build a department store. To discourage such applications of permits by Chinese, the City only approved a building permit no wider than six feet wide in store front. With no other alternative, the Chinese merchant would go ahead and build the store front. Later on, the building was labeled “The Smallest Department Store in the World” in the Guinness Book of World Record. Today, the building still stands.
1913 – The California Alien Land Law is passed, in response to increasingly successful Asian farmers, prohibiting all Asian immigrants from owning land or property, permitting them maximum three-year leases at a time.
1913 – The residents of Los Angeles’ Old Chinatown are threatened with relocation. Six acres of Chinatown property are sold for $310,000 to Southern Pacific Track Ways. Unable to own their own property, Chinese residents are left without recourse.
1914 – Komagata Maru affair, refusal to allow Asian Indian (376) to land in Vancouver, BC.
1916 – 1917 – 200 Japanese volunteer for service with Canadian army in France; 54 killed and 92 wounded.
1917 – Chinese laborers were at the center of a little known chapter of Canadian First World war history. For a year, beginning in April 1917, close to 80,000 men were shipped from China to British Columbia, then transported across the country by rail and dispatched from the east-coast ports to the trenches of France. Many of them perished in the fierce Western Front Line against German.
1917 – British Columbia’s Provincial law make it illegal for Chinese-owned restaurants and laundromats to hire white women (also in SK, MB, ON).
1917 – The Asiatic Barred Zone Act (also known as the Immigration Act of 1917) is passed in Congress, to exclude immigrants from South or Southeast Asia.
1917 – Arizona passes its own Alien Land Law.
1921 – British Columbia passes resolution in favor of complete exclusion of Asian.
1921 – 1925 – Washington, Louisiana, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, and Kansas pass Alien Land Laws barring Asians from property ownership. To prevent circumvention, amendments are made to these state laws, barring even the US-born children and legal dependents of Asians residing in the US from owning property.
1922 – The Cable Act causes the revocation of US citizenship of any woman citizen who marries an alien ineligible for citizenship. Since 90% of the Chinese in America are bachelor males ineligible for citizenship, they cannot intermarry or even openly father any children. The aging Chinese population dwindles quickly.
1923 – After the First World War, wartime industries closed, and demobilized soldiers were looking for work. On July 1, 1923, amid a post-war recession, Chinese became the only people Canada ever excluded explicitly on the basis of race. For the next 24 years, virtually no Chinese were allowed to immigrate to Canada, and Chinese Canadians observed July 1 as “Humiliation Day”, closing shops and boycotting Dominion day celebration. (The Canadian Parliament passed the Chinese Immigration Act, Anti-Chinese Resolution prohibiting all Chinese from coming to Canada and denied all of the Chinese residents already in Canada with citizenship. This exclusion affected no European immigrants.
1923 – Chinese student immigration ends due to the enactment of strict requirements for the show of funds.
1923 – In Terrace v. Thompson, the US Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of state Alien land Acts barring all ethnic Chinese from owning land or obtaining business licenses (regardless of whether they were born in the US).
1924 – The Oriental Exclusion Act of 1924 banned all Asian immigration to the United States for close to 30 years.
1925 – In Chang Chan et al. v. John D. Nagle, the Supreme Court rules that Chinese wives of American citizens are not entitled to enter the United States.
1925 – In Cheung Sumchee v. Nagle, the Supreme Court relaxes the 1924 Immigration Act, ruling that it does not apply to merchants’ wives or their children.
1927 – In Weedin v. Chin Bow, the Supreme Court rules that persons born to American parents but who never resided in the US are not of American nationality, and thus ineligible for entry to the US.
1928 – In Lam Mow v. Nagle, the Supreme Court rules that a child born of Chinese parents on American vessels on the high seas are not eligible for citizenship.
1928 – Canada’s revisions to Gentlemen’s Agreement of immigration of Asian countries, wives and children are now included in the 150 per annum quota.
1931 – The Cable Act is amended. Women who are US citizens may retain citizenship after marriage to aliens ineligible for citizenship.
1931 – The California Supreme Court upholds a decision approving land condemnations and the construction of the new Union Station at the site of Los Angeles’ historic Chinatown. Its Chinese residents are left with no recourse because they have never been allowed to own any of the properties in Chinatown. They are evicted and forced to start over elsewhere with little or no compensation. Chinatown is razed to the ground.
1935 – The Tydings-McDuffy Act of 1935 limited immigration from the Philippines by granting it independence from United State of America, which reclassified Filipinos as aliens, and then limiting their immigration to 50 individuals per year.
1936 – Japanese Canadian Citizens League delegation goes to Ottawa to plead for franchise (unsuccessfully).
1937 – Washington State legislature attempts to pass an anti-miscegenation law prohibiting “… any person of the Caucasian or white race to intermarry with any person of the Ethiopian or black race, the Malayan or brown race, or Mongolian or yellow race.”
1939 – 1945 – 600 Chinese Canadians, in order to prove their patriotism, voluntarily joined the Canadian military as allies of America in the Second World War. Some of them fought directly alongside Americans in Burma. Many of them perished during the wars in the Pacific theatre. However, those that survived the war were offered Canadian citizenship.
1941 – China is officially listed as an Allied Nation.
1942 – 1945 – Wyoming, Utah, and Arkansas passed Alien Land Laws barring Asians from property ownership.
1942 – The US launches a daring raid on the Japanese mainland which comes to be known as the Doolittle Raid. The pilots crash-land in China as planned, assuming correctly that the Chinese populace would assist their escape. In retaliation for aiding the two dozen pilots and bringing them to safety, the Japanese kill 250,000 Chinese civilians—10,000 Chinese civilians are killed for every 1 American pilot rescued.
1942 – The Japanese internments of 1942 locked up some 120,000 Japanese Americans for three and half years in concentration camps without due process and equal protection. When reparations or compensation came from the United States some fifty (50) years later, only a few Japanese survivors ever received the $20,000 check.
1942 – Evacuation and internment of Japanese; men to road camps and women/child to detention camp (Greenwood, Kaslo, New Denver, Slocan, and Tashme, British Columbia); confiscation and disposal of property without owners’ consent.
1943 – The US and China sign a treaty of alliance, allowing US troops to use China as a base against the Japanese. In exchange, Congress repeals the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 (and its various extension acts), replacing it with the Magnuson Act, which allows a token entry into the US of 105 Chinese per year. Although Chinese immigration and naturalization is allowed for the first time since 1790 and the Magnuson Act is propagandized as a relaxation of restrictions, the quota of 105 is disproportionately low and inequitable even by the US government’s own explanation of how the number was arrived.
1943 – In this year alone (Japanese war hostilities against China had already begun in 1931), an estimated 10,000,000 Chinese civilians are killed by Japanese forces. Although the US and China are officially allies, Chinese refugees and asylum requests are denied in accordance with the 1924 Immigration Act barring all Chinese from immigration.
Post – WWII – Official casualty figures are compiled and revised, finally settling at the number of “40 million killed.” This oft-quoted figure becomes a “fact” taught in all western text books for decades to come. However, the death toll excludes Asia. China alone—which was officially an Allied nation during WWII—had lost 35 million.
1947 – Chinese Canadians regained the right to vote in federal elections in 1947.
1949 – The Oregon Supreme Court inactivates (but reserves the right to re-activate) its Alien Land Law in Namba v. McCourt.
1950 – Remittances to mainland China and the British colony of Hong Kong are prohibited when the People’s Republic enters the Korean War. Violators are fined up to $10,000 and given 10-year prison sentences.
1950 – Joseph McCarthy, an obscure junior senator from Wisconsin, begins attracting national attention by fanning the flames of anti-Communist hysteria. Employing scare tactics, smear campaigns, unsubstantiated allegations and falsified dossiers, he creates the impression that widespread security risks exist in the federal government.
1950 – President Truman proclaims a national emergency due to the Korean War, granting him extraordinary powers to govern without reference to normal Constitutional processes. This state of national emergency is never terminated by Congress.
1951 – Anti-Chinese clauses in Crown leases dropped in Canada.
1951 – The Editor of the China Daily News is charged with violating the Trading with the Enemy Act by publishing an ad for a Chinese bank, through which Chinese Americans can send money to their families in China. Three laundrymen who sent money to their families in China are also charged. Their case, US v. China Daily News and Tom Sung and Chin Gong and Hong Ming, is filed in the NY Supreme Court.
1952 – The Immigration and Nationality Act (McCarran-Walter Act) upholds the disproportionately low and inequitable national-origins quota of 105 Chinese per year. Although it appears to relax the total ban of Chinese immigrants, it in actuality tightens immigration restrictions, denying admission to “subversive and undesirable aliens” and makes deportation easier. Thousands of aliens and naturalized citizens are threatened with deportation because of alleged left-wing connections.
1952 – In response to McCarthy, the FBI, in search of Communist sympathizers, taps phone lines, opens the mail of Chinese Americans and has agents shadow some of them on the streets; they question Chinese children in playgrounds.
1952 – The Justice Dept. charges Eugene Moy, the managing director of China Daily News, an American Newspaper, with an obscure and previously unused law issued in 1917, for calling for the recognition of the People’s Republic of China as a state. Moy dies soon after release from prison.
1952 – The FBI interrogates Tan Yumin, a subscriber to the China Daily News. He dies under mysterious circumstances: pushed of jumped off the Brooklyn Bridge, his body was lost for days.
1952 – The California Supreme Court overturns Alien Land Act laws in Fujii v. State of California.
1953 – The Refugee Relief Act allots 2,000 places to the Chinese, out of a total of 205,000 (although they comprise a significantly larger portion of the nationalities and ethnicities applying), for immigration into the US.
1954 – US v. China Daily News, et al, goes to court. The judge delivers a guilty verdict.
1954 – The Displaced Person Acts expires, after only 15,000 Chinese (a relatively small number) have been granted rights to live in the US.
1955 – The Montana Supreme Courts inactivates the state’s Alien Land Law in State of Montana v. Oakland.
1955 – The US v. China Daily News appeal is denied. The editor of the China Daily News and the 3 laundrymen are sentenced to jail.
1955 – The U.S. Senate votes overwhelmingly to censure Senator McCarthy for his abusive behavior as a committee chairman. He is charged with “conduct contrary to Senatorial tradition.” His political influence disappears.
1960 – 1970 – A large number of Chinese American parents in San Francisco mobilized to oppose court-ordered school integration.
1962 – Racial discrimination in immigration selection removed in Canada.
1966 – The state of Washington repeals its Alien Land Law.
1971 – The U.S. ends spying missions over China, and lifts its 21 year trade embargo. The rapprochement is intended to isolate the Soviet Union. The People’s Republic of China replaces Taiwan in the United Nations general assembly and is granted a seat on the UN Security Council.
1972 – President Richard Nixon visits China. This historic summit begins the process of restoring diplomatic ties with China.
1973 – Diplomatic relations between the People’s Republic of China and the United States of America are established. Asian Pacific American Heritage Week is declared by President Nixon.
1974 – U.S. Supreme Court decision of Lau vs. Nichols, a case brought by Chinese American parents in San Francisco regarding a demand for equality of educational opportunity in a form of bilingual education.
1982 – On June 23, 1982, in Detroit, Michigan, Vincent Chin, a Chinese American, was mistaken as being Japanese. He was beaten to death by two recently laid-off auto-workers with baseball bats only a few days before his wedding. After the criminal trial, the above two perpetrator were sentenced to three (3) years probation with fine of $3,780.
Note: Recently, News Reporter (Emil Guillermo) interviewed the Defendant (Ronald Ebens), he was deeply remorse as “biggest mistake of his live” of killing Vincent Chin. The presiding Judge (Charles Kaufman) sentencing of no prison term, we’ll let the history speak for itself. (Source: 2012 Internet posting.)
1988 – Canadian Government’s formal apology for the wrongful incarceration, seizure of property and disenfranchisement of thousands of Canadian of Japanese ancestry.
1989 – Chinese American Jim Loo of Raliegh, North Carolina was killed because he was presumed to be a Vietnamese responsible American deaths in Vietnam.
1992 – April 28, 1992 during the LA riots, Korean Town in Central LA was almost burnt down. As a result, fifty-four individuals died including a Korean American merchant and more than a billion dollars of property was lost without compensation or was refused to be reimbursed by their insurance companies.
Note: Korean Americans have come to represent wealth, greed, materialism, and arrogance because they have started businesses in inner-city neighborhoods that have been abandoned by corporations. The people still living in these neighborhoods often use the Korean small businessperson as a scapegoat for their anger against corporate America. (Source: Internet Posting.)
1992 – The United States Commission on Civil Rights, a Federal fact-finding agency, reports that Asian Americans face widespread discrimination, harassment, unfair treatment in court, scapegoating, racially -motivated violence, economic boycotts, and hit “glass ceilings” in the work place.
1999 – 2001 – On December 10, 1999, Dr. Wen-Ho Lee, a Chinese American nuclear physicist employed at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, was charged with 59 counts of mishandling classified information, 39 of which carried a life sentence. Imprisoned for 278 days in solitary confinement, he was eventually released on time served.
2001 – The movie Pearl Harbor tells the little-known story of Doolittle and his daring April 1942 raid on Tokyo. Omitted is the part about the 250,000 Chinese civilians killed in retaliation for aiding the handful of American pilots who deliberately crash-landed in China, assuming correctly that the Chinese populace would sacrifice themselves to help them escape to safety. While the ending credits detail the aftermath and impact of the raid, the quarter of a million Chinese who died in support of the military operation are not so much as given an honorable mention. (Source: Internet.)
2001 – A survey finds one in four Americans with “negative attitudes” toward Chinese Americans. They would feel uncomfortable voting for an Asian American for president of the United States, and would disapprove of a family member marrying someone of Asian descent. (Source: Internet.)
2003 – The Absconder Apprehension Initiative was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Justice’s anti-terrorist campaign. As a result, record high numbers of Filipinos are being deported. The Philippines were among those singled out as “al Qaeda active nations” because of Abu Sayyaf terrorists in Basilan Island, despite the fact that it is only one of 7,100 islands in the Philippines. (Source: Internet.)
2004 – Chinese stereotypes abound: A study finds evidence of glass ceilings in upwardly-mobile Asians, due to heavy stereotyping and prejudices about “what roles Asians are suitable for.” The study also finds Asians are mainly portrayed as side characters in American media. In movies, they often occupy supporting roles to Caucasian protagonists, or serve as antagonist to the Caucasian protagonist. Asian characters often serve as the comic relief, with overplayed accents. Asians are also portrayed as martial arts experts. There is also the stereotype of the mystical Asian sage thought to possess ancient Asian wisdom, like Pai Mei in the Kill Bill series. Since Asians are stereotyped as overachievers who are highly proficient in math and science, they are given roles as nerds, geeks, and scientists. Asian males are never given a leading role unless it is one inseparable from their identity as a foreigner with martial arts abilities. Asian men are cast in effeminate roles (according to western notions of sexuality) and never allowed to consummate a legitimate relationship with a Caucasian woman. Asian women, on the other hand, tend to be over sexualized, either as submissive China Dolls, or as seductive Dragon Lady vixens—as in the roles of Lucy Liu in Ally McBeal and Charlie’s Angels. In either stereotype of Asian female sexuality, she is sexually available to white men and an acceptable partner to white men, although she is often illegitimate and endangers the white man’s relationship with his legitimate partner. There are also many ethnic-specific occupations stereotypically assigned to Asians, including the Japanese businessman or the Chinese news anchorwoman. Cultural-identity issues of Asian-American youth are also portrayed in the media; examples include Lane Kim of the television series The Gilmore Girls and the various characters in the movie The Joy Luck Club. ( Source: Internet.)
2006 – On June 22, 2006, On behalf of Canadian Government, the Prime Minister apologized in the House of Common for the Chinese Head Tax, to formally turned the page on an unfortunate in Canada’s past. A total of 785 eligible applicants have received symbolic payment of $20,000 each.
2011 – A university student from LA posts a youtube video of her rant against Asians that subsequently goes viral.
2011 – Asian-American soldiers endure bias, the harassment of 19-year-old Danny Chen in basic training, teasing about his name, repeated questions of whether he was from China, even though he was born-and raised New Yorker. It Got worse in Afghanistan, military investigators told his family. They said the other men in his unit showered Chen, the only Chinese-American in his unit, with racial slurs and physical abuse in the weeks leading to his suicide in early October, 2011. Eight soldiers have been charged in connection with his death.
Vietnam War veteran David Oshiro isn’t surprised to hear of the accusation of racial prejudice. The 63-year old Japanese-American said he didn’t have problem with the men in his unit but often heard slurs from other enlisted Americans. When he was injured, military Medevac personnel assumed he was Vietnamese and nearly delayed his evacuation until all the soldiers they thought were American had been flown out.
In World War II, Japanese-American instantly fell suspicion and their loyalties were questioned after the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor. Those already serving in the military were removed from active duty or discharged, and many Japanese-American were sent to Internment camps. They were later allowed to serve, segregated into the 100th Battalion, which was later put with 442nd Regimental Combat Team. The 442nd became the most decorated unit for its size and length of service in U.S. military history.
As another example of continuing inequality toward Filipino Americans, only recently have Filipino veterans have been able to secure full veterans benefits for their service during World War II.
2011 – Harvard Targeted in U.S. Asian-American Discrimination Probe, The U.S. Education Department is probing complaints that Harvard University and Princeton University discrimination against Asian-Americans in undergraduate admissions. The department’s Office for Civil Rights is investigating a complaint it received in August that Harvard rejected an Asian-American candidate for the current freshman class based on race or national origin, a department spokesman said. The agency is looking into a similar August 2011 allegation against Princeton as part of a review begun in 2008 of that school’s handling of Asian-American candidates, said the spokesman, who declined to be identified, citing department policy.
2012 – February 5, 2012. Pete Hoekstra, candidate for U.S. Senate race in State of Michigan produced a Anti-Asian Campaign Ad, upon strong protested from Asian American all over United States, the Ad was take down after a week. (Source: Internet Posting.)
2012 – US-born basketball superstar Jeremy Lin is openly stereotyped, patronized and called names in the mainstream media: “fortune cookie,” “yellow mamba,” “kung fu grip,” “chink in the armor” and “FOB” and “from Taiwan.”
2012 – May 1, 2012. Nine Chinese American in Golden Nugget Casino, Atlantic City, New Jersey win 1.67 million in baccarat table, the casino denied the redemption of close to million dollars and detained them for almost ten hours without provided food and drink, and released them without charged. (Source: Singtao News, 7/19/2012)
2012 – June 18, 2012, after 130 years, the U.S. Congress unanimously passed the (H. Res. 683) voices ‘regret’ for the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, which banned Chinese workers from further immigration and barred existing residents from naturalization and voting rights. All Chinese American suffered discrimination from that time have already since become deceased receiving no or little compensation.